Access Control is the ability to manage and control entrance access traffic to a specific area. The access control systems can use various types of access credentials that can be assigned to each individual user.
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Permission to access a resource is called authorization.
Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control.
Proximity Cards: Proximity cards have a pre-programmed computer chip inside them. These chips come with an identification number burned into them. Every card is unique. The proximity reader reads this id number, sends it to the access control software and the software determines whether or not this card is authorized for the action it is requesting.
Smart Cards: Smart Cards have computer chips in them that are programmable by the authorized user. It's just a tiny computer. In addition to an access identification number like the proximity card, you can program debit accounts, library cards, user information, etc. The ideal applications are facilities that require multiple pieces of information programmed on cards, especially if that information changes regularly.
Biometric: One of the most common biometrics used today is fingerprint information. A biometric can be used to protect secret data, such as a password, providing both security and convenience. The biometric information is captured during enrollment and translated into a template, which is stored for subsequent authentication. The template can be stored on a portable device such as a smart card in a database on a server, or any other appropriate environment. During authentication, the biometric information is captured and compared against the stored template. If the user is valid, the two images will match, and authentication is achieved.
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